Tag Archives: parable

31 March 2019: Fourth Sunday of Lent (Lætare Sunday)

Reading 1 Response Reading 2 Gospel
  Jos 5:9a, 10-12   Ps 34:2-3, 4-5, 6-7   2 Cor 5:17-21
RCL: 2 Cor 5:16-21
  Lk 15:1-3, 11-32

 

Liturgical note: Lætare Sunday
The fourth Sunday of Lent is called Lætare Sunday. The Latin verb lætare (lay-TAH-ray), which means “rejoice!” or “be joyful!”, comes from the entrance antiphon for the day:

Lætare Ierusalem: et conventum facite omnes qui diligitis eam.
Rejoice, Jerusalem, and come together all who love her.

The liturgical color for Lent is purple, a color that reminds us of our need for metanoia–conversion and change. Lætare Sunday’s liturgical color is rose, a color that represents joy. This Sunday marks Lent’s approximate mid-point, a day to rejoice because Easter is now within sight. Traditionally this day was a day of relaxation from normal Lenten practices.

Reconciling the lost: both sinners and righteous

Rose_banner_sm During Lent the believing community follows Jesus as he is tested, transfigured, tells parables, forgives, and arrives in Jerusalem. This week’s readings ask us: who is in greatest need of being found and being reconciled?

The first reading, from the book of Joshua, describes the Israelites settling in the promised land and the manna’s end. While the Israelites journeyed in the wilderness, God fed them with manna. When they reached the promised land, they no longer needed manna. As a pilgrim people journeying to the kingdom, God feeds the ekklesia (believing community) with the Eucharist. When we reach God’s kingdom and the messianic feast, we will no longer need the Eucharist. The Lectionary editors chose this reading to match the feasting in the gospel. Like the Eucharist, the gospel’s feast both celebrates the lost one’s return and invites the still-lost to enter.

In the second reading from the second letter to the Corinth ekklesia, Paul invites the Corinthians to participate in Paul’s own ministry of reconciliation. God began this reconciliation ministry in Christ, who reconciled us to God. Christ continues this ministry through his disciples as “ambassadors of reconciliation.” Paul urges all to “be reconciled to God.” The Lectionary editors chose this reading because it echoes the gospel’s theme of reconciliation.

Luke’s gospel is the parable of the lost son. This parable is the final of three parables about becoming lost and being found. While teaching to a crowd of listening “tax collectors and sinners,” Jesus directs these parables, especially the lost son parable, to the grumbling Pharisees and scribes.

  • The religious and social contexts. Pharisees (the name means “pious ones” or “separated ones”) believed that to achieve the holiness God desires, they must remain ritually pure, which includes avoiding sinners. They can’t understand why Jesus eats with unclean tax collectors and sinners. Jesus answers with parables that challenge the Pharisees’ ideas of who is a sinner and what God desires.
  • Lost and wanting to be found. The younger son estranges himself from his generous father by demanding his share of his father’s livelihood during his father’s lifetime. Through overspending and bad money management, he loses what he needs to live. After hitting bottom (working as a gentile’s pig-feeder), he realizes he needs his father after all. His generous father forgives him, fully reinstates him in the family (as a son, not a hired worker), and celebrates his return with a reconciliation feast for the entire village.
  • Lost and invited to be found. The older son estranges himself from his father as well. He insults his father, saying he is his father’s victim: he slaves for years and never disobeys a command, but his father is too cheap to reward him with a feast with his friends. The older son, who has done everything right, is deeply bitter of his brother’s treatment, and would rather celebrate with friends, not family. The generous father leaves the younger son’s feast to comfort his older son, to assure him about his inheritance, and to invite him to join the reconciliation feast-in-progress.

The Lenten Lectionary readings call us to walk with Jesus as he prepares for his transformative death. Today’s readings are about estrangement, forgiveness, reconciliation, and feasts. Jesus’ ministry inaugurates God’s kingdom. His sharing in meals is a sign of the messianic feast. All are invited. Sinners have already been welcomed in. Others stand outside, invited but undecided, because they don’t like the guest list. Jesus leaves the parable unresolved: will the older son join the feast? Will we?

—Terence Sherlock

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24 March 2019: Third Sunday of Lent

Reading 1 Response Reading 2 Gospel
  Ex 3:1-8a, 13-15
RCL: Is 55:1-5
  Ps 103: 1-2, 3-4, 6-7, 8, 11   1 Cor 10:1-6, 10-12
RCL: 1 Cor 10:1-13
  Lk 13:1-9

Lent: time to change. Now.

Purple_banner_sm During Lent the believing community follows Jesus as he is tested, transfigured, tells parables, forgives, and arrives in Jerusalem. This week’s readings warn us that although God is merciful, we must change to accept God’s salvation.

The first reading, from Exodus, describes Moses’ encounter with God in the burning bush. God, having heard the people’s cries, reveals to Moses God’s saving plan to rescue the Israelites from Egypt’s slavery. God’s merciful plan includes Moses, but Moses, like many Hebrew scripture leaders and prophets, doesn’t want to accept the divine call. Moses must change his mind/heart about who God is (“I AM who am”). The Lectionary editors chose this reading to show God’s mighty act of mercy, a theme in today’s gospel.

The second reading, from Paul’s first letter to the Corinth ekklesia, warns about spiritual complacency and overconfidence. Paul recounts God’s mighty act in Exodus, reminding the Corinthians that even though God delivered the Israelites from Egypt (protected “under the cloud,” and “passed through the sea”), and fed them with manna (“spiritual food”) and water from the rock (“spiritual drink”), some still displeased God. That is, Israelite community membership alone did not guarantee life (“they were struck down.”) In the same way, simply being baptized (“passing through the sea”) and celebrating the Eucharist (“eating spiritual food”) do not assure entry to God’s kingdom. The Lectionary editors chose this reading to remind us that we must meet God’s mercy with metanoia (change of mind/heart) as Jesus says in today’s gospel.

Luke’s gospel includes a saying and a parable from Jesus as he is “on the road” to Jerusalem. Jesus the prophet calls for metanoia: a change of mind/heart.

  • The saying. When Jesus hears about Pilate killing Galileans and the Siloam tower collapse, he asks, “Were the people killed because they were great sinners?” Popular pious thought said that God punished people who experienced misfortune for their sins. “No,” Jesus says, “Disasters like this are a warning for all to change their hearts/minds.” The Greek verb μετανοέω (meh-tah-noh-EH-oh), translated here as “repent,” actually means “to change one’s mind and heart,” “to convert,” “to turn around.” Metanoia is more than simply “repenting;” it is an active turning away from evil and turning toward good.
  • The parable. Jesus follows his warning with a parable. Parables are purposely open-ended. We should resist trying to “tame” parables by turning them into allegories or by adding meanings that are not part of the text. In this parable, a tree that should produce fruit does not. The tree’s owner wants it cut down immediately; the vineyard worker urges patience (mercy), but only for a limited time. Jesus’ hearers would be surprised that, at the end of the parable, the tree is still standing. The owner allows the tree a little more time (in addition to the time it already had) to bear fruit. Jesus’ hearers still have time for metanoia, but if they do not change soon, they will be cut off.

The Lenten Lectionary readings call us to walk with Jesus as he prepares for his transformative death. Today’s readings invite us to consider our response to God’s mercy. We may think, like the first reading Israelites and the second reading Corinthians, that community membership or occasional ritual participation guarantees salvation. “Not so,” says Jesus. Continuous metanoia is the price of eternal life. Do the cries of suffering people reach us? Do we think we are standing securely because we “go to church?” Do we think we’ve really turned away from all evil? Do we think we have all the time in the world to change our hearts/minds and bear fruit?

—Terence Sherlock

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3 March 2019: Eighth Sunday in Ordinary time

Reading 1 Response Reading 2 Gospel
  Sir 27:4-7
RCL: Is 55:10-13
  Ps 92:2-3, 13-14, 15-16   1 Cor 15:54-58
RCL: 1 Cor 15:51-58
  Lk 6:39-45
RCL: Lk 6:39-49

Discipleship: how we are known

Green_banner_sm During Ordinary time the Lectionary readings present stories and teachings from Jesus’ everyday ministry. This week’s readings invite us to judge the fruits of our own discipleship.

The first reading, from the book of Sirach, is part of Hebrew scripture’s wisdom writings. Sirach draws a parallel between something known from nature (a well-cared for tree produces good fruit) and something true about the human experience (a well-cared for inner life produces good and wise words). The Lectionary editors chose this reading because Jesus uses a similar saying about trees and fruit in today’s gospel.

The second reading concludes the Lectionary’s reading cycle from Paul’s first letter to the Corinthian ekklesia. Paul continues to correct Corinthian ideas about the resurrection. The Corinthian gnostics thought baptism initiated them into the resurrected life; therefore they didn’t needs a physical resurrection after death. Paul quotes Hosea’s metaphor (Hos 13:14) that compares death to a scorpion: a scorpion kills with a sting (“sin”) from its tail. Paul teaches that “death has lost its sting” because God has given us victory through Christ, who has defeated sin, the cause of death. Paul also says that “sin’s power comes from the Law.” That is, God gave humans the Law to help us become holy. Ironically, the Law gave humans more opportunities to fail, which increased sin’s power (more rules = more failings). However, because Christ removed the threat of death, the believing community can now focus on living lives (“labor”) aligned with Christ as part of Christ’s finished work.

Luke’s gospel concludes Jesus’ “sermon on the plain.” Addressing those who have chosen discipleship, Jesus uses three parables and a saying to teach about community living:

  • The parables. Continuing his theme of compassion and non-judgement, Jesus presents his disciples with three parabolic sayings about how to live in the kingdom’s community: leaders can be blind, teachers can be limited, and correction can easily turn into hypocrisy. Jesus warns those who set themselves up as moral leaders, teachers, or advisors (condemning or correcting others) have their own moral blind spots, incomplete understanding, and obscured vision. To condemn or correct others without such self-awareness makes a leader, teacher, or advisor a hypocrite.
  • The saying. In the ancient world, people believed that character preceded action; that is, a person’s deeds (“fruit”) reveal the state of one’s heart. Only a hypocrite could camouflage his natural inclinations. In this saying that summarizes his parables, Jesus gives would-be judges of others a measure of their own worthiness or unworthiness: one’s mouth (what you say) must agree with one’s heart (what or who you are).

This week’s readings ask every believing community member to consider his or her relationships with others. In his “sermon on the plain,” Jesus calls his disciples to a higher standard of behavior. A disciple is blessed to be invited into the kingdom. A disciple loves his enemies. A disciple shows God-like love and mercy. A disciple’s actions flow from her character or “heart.” A disciple produces good words and actions. The sermon on the plain challenges us to measure our discipleship. Am I blind to my own personal failings? Have I failed to learn important moral lessons? What beam in my own eye am I purposely ignoring? What are my words and actions saying to the community?

 

—Terence Sherlock

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17 June 2018: Eleventh Sunday in Ordinary time

Reading 1 Response Reading 2 Gospel
  Ez 17:22-24   Ps 92:2-3, 13-14, 15-16   2 Cor 5:6-10   Mk 4:26-34

God’s kingdom: secret seeds, bushes, and birds

Green_banner_sm During Ordinary time the Lectionary readings present stories and teachings from Jesus’ everyday ministry. This week’s readings invite RCIA participants and the believing community to consider the mystery of God’s kingdom.

The first reading from the prophet Ezekiel describes God’s promises to restore the exiles and to reestablish David’s line. God will plant a cutting from a mighty cedar tree in the heights of Israel. The tree stands for Israel (the restored Davidic dynasty). The birds who come to roost in the branches are the returning exiles (the captives in Babylon). Eventually all nations (“birds of every kind”) will come to recognize the God of Israel. Christians hear Ezekiel’s words fulfilled in Jesus; Jesus is David’s descendant, and Jesus inaugurates God’s messianic kingdom, which is open to all nations. The gospel’s mustard seed parable echoes this theme of including all nations in God’s kingdom.

The second reading continues Paul’s second letter to the ekklesia at Corinth. The overarching theme of 2 Cor is Paul’s defense against false teachers who created confusion in the community. In today’s reading, Paul contrasts “home/away” and “seen/ unseen” to explain how we live between the already and the not yet. Now we all live (“are at home”) in physical bodies, and so we are separated from the risen Christ. Now we know the risen Christ only by faith, since we can no longer see him. Our faith tells us that when we die (“leave our bodies”) we will be with the resurrected Christ. Now we should live as Jesus lived (“aspire to please him”) so that when we meet him (“appear before the judgement seat”), Jesus will recognize us as his disciples (“receive recompense”).

Mark’s gospel is from Jesus’ “day of parables” (Mk 4). We hear two parables and Mark’s summary:

  • Parable of the seed growing quietly (v 26-29). This parable is unique to Mark. Jesus reminds his hearers that seeds grow without human intervention. Jesus’ hearers would be surprised that God’s kingdom would come unnoticed, without cataclysmic signs. The kingdom of God develops quietly yet powerfully until God fully establishes the kingdom at the final judgment (Mk 4:29; Rev 14:15).

The parable encourages disciples in Mark’s community who feel their efforts are fruitless, and warns those who think they can bring the kingdom through their own projects and plans.

  • Parable of the mustard seed (v 30-32). This parable also appears in Matthew and Luke. Jesus’ hearers would be surprised that God’s kingdom would be present but be unseen. Jesus probably told this parable in response to his opponents’ criticism: if the kingdom of God is here, why can’t we see it? The biblical image of a tree housing many birds symbolizes an empire that grants protection to people of many races and languages (see the first reading). With comic irony Jesus portrays the kingdom not as a lofty cedar tree (first reading), but as a weedy bush.

The parable encourages Mark’s community, which is facing failure and persecution (Mk 13:9-13). Jesus continues to grow the believing community even when they lack faith.

  • Mark’s summary (v 33-34). Mark concludes with two important ideas about discipleship:

First, Jesus speaks to the crowd as they are able to hear. The Greek verb ἀκούω means “to hear,” “to listen,” “to understand,” or “to obey.” Mark wants his community to remember that the kingdom grows as a disciple reflects on the parables and embraces their implications, enlarging his or her ability “to hear.”

Second, Jesus explains everything to the disciples privately. The Greek verb ἐπιλύω means “to explain” and is often translated as “to interpret religious or oracular statements.” Mark wants his community to hear Jesus address the needs in their ekklesia: proper moral conduct (Mk 7:17-21), divorce (Mk 10:10-12), and the danger of wealth (Mk 10:23-30).

The readings challenge RCIA candidates and the believing community to consider the mystery of God’s kingdom, and our response as disciples. Jesus describes God’s kingdom as a seed that grows by its own power, and as a tiny seed that grows into a shrub that is home to many birds. The kingdom comes according to God’s plan, not ours. The kingdom comes for everyone, not just for us and our friends. As disciples, we should cooperate with God’s plan. As disciples we should seek to grow the kingdom. Are we promoting God’s agenda, or our own? Do we have faith that the community will grow as God wills, or do we believe we know better?

—Terence Sherlock

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18 March 2018: Fifth Sunday of Lent

Reading 1 Response Reading 2 Gospel
  Jer 31:31-34   Ps 51:3-4, 12-13, 14-15   Heb 5:7-9   Jn 12:20-33

 

Lectionary note: Scrutinies
On the fifth Sunday of Lent, the Lectionary offers two sets of readings. Masses that include catechumens celebrating the Scrutinies use Year A readings; all other masses use Year B readings. This reflection uses Year B readings.

Knowing God by heart

Purple_banner_sm During Lent the believing community follows Jesus as he is tested and transfigured, and as he foretells his coming glory. For RCIA participants, Lent’s rites and prayers prepare them for the Easter Vigil sacraments. As we draw closer to Easter, today’s readings describe God’s promise of a new covenant.

In the first reading from Jeremiah, the prophet foretells God’s restoration of the chosen people. Despite the people’s unfaithfulness, God promises to restore the exiles to the promised land and establish a new covenant. This covenant will not be written on stone tablets, but in the hearts of all who know God. Christians understand that Jesus establishes this new covenant. The second reading describes Jesus accomplishing this new covenant with his death. In the gospel, Jesus announces that his hour of glorification (his crucifixion) has come.

In the second reading from the letter to the Hebrews, the author compares the Mosaic covenant with the new covenant established by Jesus. The new covenant, with Jesus as mediator and high priest, is able to justify or to “put humans right” with God. After Jesus accomplished his reconciling work, he became the source of eternal life to all who believe in him. Today’s gospel echoes this theme in Jesus’ lifting up and drawing everyone to himself.

John’s gospel has two parts: the sign of the gentiles’ request to see Jesus, and Jesus’ discourse on his death and glorification.

  • We want to see Jesus. John uses “the Greeks” to represent all gentiles (non-Jews). The Greeks, asking to see Jesus, use the Greek verb εἴδω (EYE-doh), which means both “to see” and “to know.” Today’s first reading uses the same verb to describe how, in the new covenant, all people will see/know God. The gentiles’ request to know him signals to Jesus that his ministry is complete, and the hour has arrived.
  • Now the hour has come. After announcing the time of his glorification has come, Jesus explains what the hour will mean to him, to his disciples, and to those who reject him:
    • For Jesus, his hour means that his death and resurrection will make eternal remaining-in-relationship with God possible for everyone. This is the meaning of the parable of the grain of wheat.
    • For disciples, his hour means that those who follow Jesus must imitate his service in their own lives. They must be willing to lose their lives to gain eternal remaining-in-relationship with God.
    • For those who oppose and reject Jesus, his hour means their time of judgement. They have aligned themselves with the ruler of this world. Jesus’ glorification will break the ruler’s hold on humans, and the ruler, along with his supporters, will be thrown out of God’s kingdom.

Today’s readings remind RCIA participants and the believing community that we are living in a new covenant or relationship with God. Jesus’ words and actions reveal God’s covenant of love, written in every human heart. At every moment, in every choice we make, our hour has come. Do we choose to serve one another or do we serve only ourselves? Do we choose to follow the ruler of this world, accepting only what this world can offer? Or do we follow the glorified one, letting go of this world’s empty promises to gain what is real and lasting?

—Terence Sherlock

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3 December 2017: First Sunday of Advent

Reading 1 Response Reading 2 Gospel
  Is 63:16b-17, 19b; 64:2-7   Ps 80:2-3, 15-16, 18-19   1 Cor 1:3-9   Mk 13:33-37

Advent: looking forward by looking back

Purple_banner_sm Happy new liturgical year! This Sunday marks the start of a new liturgical year and a new season. The year’s Sunday gospel readings change from Matthew to Mark; the season’s color is now Advent’s purple. In Advent, the Lectionary readings ask RCIA participants and the believing community to look back to God’s promises and to look forward to their fulfillment.

In the first reading from Isaiah, the returned exiles lament what they find: the Temple burned and Jerusalem in ruins. In striking language, Isaiah asks that God “tear open the heavens and come down” to be with the people again, and through “awesome deeds” restore Jerusalem to its former glory. The Lectionary editors chose this passage to show us that God has fulfilled this request, “tearing open heaven and coming down” in Jesus’ incarnation.

In the second reading from the first letter to the Corinth ekklesia, Paul opens with greetings and thanksgiving for the believing community. He previews a few issues he will cover, including charismatic gifts, unity, and fellowship meals. Paul sets the Corinthian’s gifts in an eschatological context. Despite the Corinthians’ present knowledge, they are still waiting for the Lord “to be revealed.” Here Paul describes the paradox of the “already” and the “not yet:” the Corinthians already have particular gifts they need to build up the believing community, but these gifts will not be fully known or understood until Jesus’ return–the not yet. Advent reminds us that Jesus is with us now in word and sacrament, but we will know him fully only when he comes again in the parousia.

In Mark’s gospel, Jesus tells his disciples to watch and to stay awake; he summarizes promise and fulfillment in the parable of the doorkeeper.

  • The instructions. As part of his end-time teachings, Jesus admonishes disciples to be watchful and to be alert because no one knows when “the time will come.”
  • The parable. This parable is similar to the parable of the talents we heard a few weeks ago. A man going on an indeterminate trip tells his slaves to continue their work and commands the doorkeeper to watch for his return. The master will judge the slaves when he returns.
  • The meaning. Jesus intends this parable not just for first-century disciples, but for all disciples (“What I say to you, I say to all.”). His command–“Be vigilant!”–warns disciples to remain watchful for his promised return. When he fulfills his promise, the Lord will judge each disciple on how well he or she has lived as his disciple. There is no room for complacency in Christian life.

The Advent readings invite RCIA participants and the whole believing community to look back to God’s promises and forward to their fulfillment. God fulfilled Isaiah’s request to “tear open the heavens and come down” through Jesus’ incarnation. Paul tells us God has already given us the gifts we need to live as disciples, although we can’t yet fully understand or appreciate them. Jesus warns us to watch for his promised return by fulfilling our discipleship daily. Advent is a time of waiting for Jesus’ coming at Christmas and watching for Jesus’ coming again. How are we using our time?

—Terence Sherlock

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19 November 2017: Thirty-third Sunday in Ordinary time

Reading 1 Response Reading 2 Gospel
  Prv 31:10-13, 19-20, 30-31   Ps 128:1-2, 3, 4-5   1 Thes 5:1-6   Mt 25:14-30

Kingdom come

Green_banner_sm On this final Sunday of Ordinary time, the readings’ themes focus on the end times and Jesus’ second coming. This week’s readings outline again what God requires of disciples who wish to enter the kingdom.

The first reading, from the book of Wisdom, presents an ideal woman serving her family and community. This woman is also Wisdom personified; a person’s reward for seeking Wisdom is a worthy spouse and children, a great household, and renown in the community. The Lectionary editors chose this reading because it mentions “receiving a reward for labors,” which echoes the gospel’s theme.

The second reading, from Paul’s first letter to the Thessalonian ekklesia, contains Paul’s response to concerns about the “time and season” of Jesus’ return. Seeking to calm the community he founded, Paul points out that no one knows when the end is coming. As children of the light and of the day, they shouldn’t worry about the coming judgement. Rather, they should rejoice, because the parousia marks their day of salvation. They need only to stay alert and awake.

Matthew’s gospel continues Jesus’ eschatological sermon (Mt 24:1-25:46), which includes the parable of the talents. Matthew has adapted Jesus’ parable to emphasize its end-time themes.

  • The master’s charge. A man who is going on a long journey entrusts three slaves with varying amounts of money. He expects them to manage what they’ve been given.
  • The slaves’ actions. In the master’s absence, the first and second slaves work and trade the master’s money and double its value. The third slave, out of fear, buries the money he had been given, doing nothing.
  • The surprise. When the master returns, he demands an accounting. The master is pleased with the first two slaves’ work and results and invites them “to share in his joy.” Unsurprisingly, the master calls the third slave “useless” because he did nothing with his master’s money. Jesus’ hearers would be surprised that the master not only punishes the third slave, but disowns him (like the bridegroom disowned his teenage cousins in last week’s gospel). The master has the useless slave thrown into the outer darkness, where he is no longer a slave, but a non-person. The “outer darkness” is Matthew’s codeword for “denied entrance to God’s kingdom.” Matthew’s hearers understand that Jesus holds his disciples to a high standard: they must live the gospel to enter God’s kingdom.

The readings invite RCIA participants and the believing community to examine God’s entry requirements for the kingdom. The first reading highlights actions. The second reading focuses on watchfulness. The gospel describes the consequences of discipleship. At the parousia, disciples will be called to account for what they have done with the good news God entrusted to them. Only those who grow the gospel by their words and actions will enter the kingdom. Are we faithful and productive stewards who promote and live Jesus’ message? Or are our choices and actions ruled by our own fear or laziness?

—Terence Sherlock

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12 November 2017: Thirty-second Sunday in Ordinary time

Reading 1 Response Reading 2 Gospel
  Wis 6:12-16   Ps 63:2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8   1 Thes 4:13-18   Mt 25:1-13

The wisdom of watchful waiting

Green_banner_sm As we near the end of Ordinary time and this liturgical year, the Sunday readings become eschatological: they focus on the end times and Jesus’ second coming. This week’s readings ask us how prepared we are to meet Jesus.

In the first reading, the Wisdom author writes to encourage the Jews in Egypt during a time of suffering and oppression (70-50 BC). This Wisdom passage has an eschatological theme: wisdom is unfading (v 12) and those who find wisdom reign as kings forever (v 21). The Lectionary editors chose this reading because of its similarity to themes in today’s gospel of wisdom, waiting, and the messiah’s coming.

In the second reading, Paul clarifies his teaching about the parousia (Christ’s return at the end of time). In this early period (30s-70s AD), the believing community expected Jesus to return within their lifetimes. Some Thessalonica community members have died; their friends and relatives worry that these “fallen-asleep ones” will miss the Lord’s return. Paul reassures them that Jesus’ own resurrection is his promise to all believers of their personal resurrections.

In Matthew’s gospel, Jesus presents his fifth and final discourse, his eschatological sermon (Mt 24:1-25:46), which includes the parable of the ten virgins. Jesus sets a scene that all his hearers would recognize–a wedding celebration at a bridegroom’s home.

  • First-century wedding culture. The groom and his friends have gone across the village or to a nearby village to bring the bride and her friends back to his home. The returning wedding party wanders through every village street and alley so everyone can see and cheer them as they pass. The ten virgins, the groom’s unmarried teenage relatives, wait for the meandering parade to return, so they can escort them into the groom’s home. Bored by waiting, the teenagers fall asleep.
  • The crisis. When the wedding party finally nears the groom’s home, the waiting guests call out. Awakened, the teenage lamp keepers immediately trim their lamps. The delay has depleted their lamps’ oil. Some teenagers brought extra oil; others did not. The ones without oil beg the ones with extra oil to share. The ones with oil refuse, worried there won’t be enough oil for all the lamps to last until the wedding party actually arrives. The ones without oil rush off to find oil. Meanwhile, the bridegroom returns with the wedding party, and all present go into the feast, locking the door after them.
  • The parable’s surprise. The five unprepared teenagers return with their now-full lamps and bang on the bridegroom’s door to be let in. They hear the bridegroom’s voice through the door saying, “I don’t know you.” In the middle east, family is everything. Jesus’ hearers would ask: Why would the bridegroom disown his relatives and bar them from his wedding feast?

The readings invite RCIA participants and the believing community to think about who will enter God’s kingdom. The first reading highlights our need for wisdom. Paul emphasizes our need for faith. The gospel parable tells us we must be thoughtful and prepared. We are the lamp-holding teenagers waiting for the bridegroom’s return. Do we think that baptism guarantees entry to the kingdom? Do our words and actions mark us as part of Jesus’ family? How are we preparing for the bridegroom’s coming?

—Terence Sherlock

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15 October 2017: Twenty-eighth Sunday in Ordinary time

Reading 1 Response Reading 2 Gospel
  Is 25:6-10a   Ps 23:1-3a, 3b-4, 5, 6   Phil 4:12-14, 19-20   Mt 22:1-14

A king and his problem party guests

Green_banner_sm During Ordinary time the Lectionary invites RCIA participants and the believing community to hear and to reflect on Jesus’ teachings from his everyday ministry. This week’s readings invite us to think about invitations, banquets, and worthiness.

The first reading from the prophet Isaiah comforts the Jewish people in exile in Babylon. Isaiah tells the captives that God has a plan to destroy Judah’s enemies and save God’s poor. God will then host a victory banquet for all in Jerusalem. This banquet is the eschatological (end-time) feast that represents God’s universal invitation to salvation. Christian hearers recognize in Isaiah’s prophecy Jesus’ description of God’s kingdom repeated in today’s gospel.

In the second reading’s letter to the Philippi believing community, Paul thanks the Philippians for their gifts and support while he is in prison. Paul prays that “God will supply whatever you need,” just as the Philippians have met Paul’s needs. His closing doxology (“to God be glory forever”) asks God’s blessing on the Philippians.

In Matthew’s gospel, Jesus directs another allegorical parable to the chief priests and elders, using elements from Isaiah’s banquet story (first reading). The allegory has the following parts:

  • The first parable/allegory (v 2-9). Hebrew scripture uses king as an image for God, and the wedding feast as an image of the end-time messianic banquet. In Matthew’s allegory, the invited ones are the Jewish religious leaders whom the prophets (the king’s slaves) invited to God’s kingdom. Some invitees shame the king by begging off with poor excuses not to attend, but other invitees challenge the king’s honor by killing his slaves. The shamed king responds in anger, saying that those who shamed him were not worthy of his feast. The king tells his slaves to go out into the public gathering places and invite whomever you find. In the allegory, these new invitees are from “all nations.”
  • The second parable/allegory (v 10-13). The slaves gathered everyone they found, both bad and good, and brought them to the feast. (Like the parable of the dragnet [Mt 13:47-48], the kingdom gathers together the good and the bad. Sorting comes later.) When the king reviews the invitees, he finds one not properly dressed for the feast. The king judges that invitee not worthy, and orders him bound and thrown out of the feast. The allegory’s outside darkness is a place outside God’s kingdom.
  • The saying/interpretation (v 14). “Many are called/invited, but few chosen/elected.” Matthew concludes the allegory by reminding his community that they have been called/invited in the place of the others, but if they fail to live up to the invitation (wear the wedding garment) they will face the same consequences as the religious leaders.

In today’s readings RCIA participants and the believing community are challenged to examine their invitation and response to the banquet. Salvation requires more than accepting the invitation. We must also be worthily dressed to be among the chosen. That is, faith brings our invitation, but we must show continued righteousness as well. Jesus defines such righteousness in his sermon on the mount and other teachings. Do we think baptism alone will get us into God’s eschatological feast? Do we wear our garment–our words and actions–daily? Would the king judge us worthy of his son’s feast?

—Terence Sherlock

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8 October 2017: Twenty-seventh Sunday in Ordinary time

Reading 1 Response Reading 2 Gospel
  Is 5:1-7   Ps 80:9, 12, 13-14, 15-16, 19-20   Phil 4:6-9   Mt 21:33-43

 

A vineyard owner and his problem tenants

Green_banner_sm During Ordinary time the Lectionary invites RCIA participants and the believing community to hear and to reflect on Jesus’ teachings from his everyday ministry. This week’s readings invite us to think about the responsibilities of stewardship.

In the first reading, Isaiah tells an allegorical story about a vineyard owner. Although he carefully develops his vineyard and plants good grapes, only wild grapes grow. Because his grapes fail, the owner chooses to tear down his vineyard. Isaiah explains the owner is God, and the grapes are the people of Judah. God will punish the people because they failed in their stewardship to keep God’s covenant. Jesus tells a similar allegorical parable in today’s gospel.

In the second reading, Paul concludes his letter to the Philippi ekklesia. Many scripture scholars believe this letter is a composite of two or three letters. If so, v 6-7 end one letter and v 8-9 end a different letter. Paul closes the first letter with a request that the Philippians not to be anxious, but rather to bring their requests to God in prayer. Paul closes the other letter with an exhortation that the Philippians model their lives on Christ as Paul does, referencing Christ’s example from last week’s christological hymn (Phil 2:6-11).

In Matthew’s gospel, Jesus directs an allegorical parable to the chief priests and elders, using elements from Isaiah’s vineyard parable (first reading). The story has the following parts:

  • The parable/allegory. Echoing Isaiah’s parable, Jesus describes a landowner (God) who creates a vineyard (the chosen people). In Jesus’ story, the owner leases the vineyard to tenants (the religious leaders). At the harvest, the owner sends his servants (the prophets) to collect his share. The tenants beat, kill, and stone his servants. The owner responds by sending more servants; the tenants treat these servants in the same way. Finally the owner sends his son (Jesus), whom the tenants throw out of the vineyard and kill.
  • Jesus’ question and the religious leaders’ answer. Jesus ends his parable by asking the chief priests and elders, “What do you think the owner will do to the tenants?” The religious leaders implicate themselves when they answer: “He’ll kill the evil tenants and lease the vineyard to others who will produce fruit.” Jesus presses his point by quoting Ps 118 about the stone (Jesus) rejected by the builders (the religious authorities) becoming the cornerstone or capstone (his resurrection).
  • Jesus’ interpretation. In case the religious leaders didn’t understand the allegory, Jesus tells them bluntly that God’s kingdom will be taken from them and given to people (more faithful stewards) who will produce fruit.

RCIA participants and the believing community are challenged in today’s readings to consider their stewardship. Although we may not think of ourselves as religious leaders, we have stewardship responsibilities to ourselves, our children, our spouses, our neighbors, and our world. We are responsible for hearing and acting on God’s instructions and remaining in covenant with God, and bringing others into loving relationships. Are we faithful tenants and stewards? Do we listen when God speaks to us through Word and sacrament? Do we act out of love for God and our neighbor?

—Terence Sherlock

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