| Jer 17:5-8
RCL: Jer 17:5-10
| Ps 1:1-2, 3, 4 and 6
|| 1 Cor 15:12, 16-20
RCL: 1 Cor 15:12-20
| Lk 6:17, 20-26
RCL: Lk 6:17-20
Discipleship: who are you, really?
During Ordinary time the Lectionary readings present stories and teachings from Jesus’ everyday ministry. This week’s readings ask each believing community member to consider his or her relationship with God.
The first reading, from the prophet Jeremiah, contrasts those who trust humans with those who trust God. Jeremiah uses a familiar prophetic form that pairs a positive behavior (a blessing) with a negative one (a curse) to strengthen his message. The Lectionary editors chose this reading because Jesus uses a similar teaching format in today’s gospel.
The second reading continues Paul’s first letter to the Corinthian ekklesia. Over the last four weeks, Paul has corrected the Corinthians’ ideas about spiritual gifts, community, what divides them, and the resurrection. This week Paul addresses the Corinthian’s anti-resurrection argument. Trained in Greek logic and rhetoric, Paul deconstructs their “no resurrection” argument as follows:
- If there is no resurrection, then Christ is not raised.
- If Christ is not raised, then none of Paul’s gospel is true.
- If the gospel is false, then the Corinthians’ faith is meaningless, and they are not redeemed.
- Therefore, if the Corinthians continue to believe in any of Christ’s promises, they delude themselves, and should be pitied for their meaningless faith.
But, Paul reminds them, Christ is raised, and his resurrection promises resurrection for the entire believing community.
Luke’s gospel recounts Jesus’ “sermon on the plain,” beginning with the beatitudes. Jesus has just returned from praying on the mountain and choosing his Twelve. Jesus and his disciples come down from the mountain to a plain filled with a large crowd who want to hear Jesus and have him cure their sick. Jesus heals the sick, and, while the crowd listens in, he begins teaching his disciples about the kingdom:
- Blessings and woes. Paired blessings/curses are a recognized Hebrew scripture form used especially by the prophets. Luke uses this form to emphasize to his hearers that Jesus is a prophet and stands in Jewish prophetic tradition. Jesus’ blessings/woes address his disciples’ real economic and social conditions (poor/rich; hungry/satisfied; grieving/laughing; outcast/socially acceptable). His beatitudes announce the messianic age and invite disciples into God’s kingdom.
- Who is blessed. The Greek word Luke uses means “blessed” or “happy” or “fortunate,” either because of circumstances or through divine privilege. Jesus says that disciples are blessed or fortunate (the poor, the hungry, the grieving, the marginalized), not the conditions that create their circumstances (poverty, hunger, loss, oppression). What makes the disciples blessed is their trust and dependence on God. They will be further blessed because they have a place in God’s coming kingdom.
- Who will suffer woe. The Greek word Luke uses is an exclamation of “alas” or “woe” that denotes pain, displeasure, or hardship. A “woe” is a warning of a coming judgement. Jesus directs his woes to non-disciples (the rich, the well-fed, the entertained and arrogant, the social in-crowd) who trust in human wealth, power, and relationships and don’t need God. In the future, their positions will be completely reversed because they will not have a place in God’s coming kingdom.
The gospel’s blessings and woes echo Jeremiah in the first reading: “Blessed is the one who trusts God; cursed is the one who trusts humans.” Whether we read the beatitudes as a spiritual or a social commentary, the result is the same. The beatitudes ask each disciple, “What is your relationship with God?” Do we need God, or are we doing OK on our own? Do we hear Jesus’ prophetic message, or do we prefer the false prophets who tell us what we want to hear? Are we being blessed or warned?
|Lv 19:1-2, 17-18
||Ps 103:1-2, 3-4, 8, 10, 12-13
||1 Cor 3:16-23
Called to be holy, called to be perfect
During Ordinary time the Lectionary invites RCIA participants and the believing community to hear and to reflect on stories and teachings from Jesus’ everyday ministry. The gospel continues Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount discourse. This week’s readings call disciples to holiness by being as perfect as the Father.
In the first reading from Leviticus, God calls Israel to be holy by obeying God’s laws. These laws include attitudes and actions towards one’s fellow Israelites–the neighbor. The Lectionary editors chose this reading because the instruction about holiness matches the second reading and the instruction to love is the basis for today’s gospel.
The second reading continues Paul’s first letter to the Corinthians. Last week, Paul told the Corinthians that they must hear what the Spirit teaches. This week, Paul addresses the Corinthian’s factions and wisdom-seeking. The Corinthian ekklesia (believing community) is a temple because God’s Spirit lives in the community, making them holy. By dividing the ekklesia into factions, the Corinthians have defiled the temple and endangered their holiness. To help the Corinthians restore their spiritual balance, Paul explains everyone’s place in serving God’s kingdom: the ekklesia leaders serve the ekklesia, who serve Christ, who serves God.
Matthew’s gospel continues Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount discourse. Today Jesus again challenges his disciples to go beyond the Law’s requirements and to become as perfect as their heavenly Father. The reading has three parts:
- Release the need to retaliate. Hebrew scripture’s law “an eye for an eye” (Ex 21:24) was meant to limit revenge–punishment or restitution should not exceed the injury done. Although the Law granted a wronged person the right to retribution, Jesus’ new law forbids all retaliation. When insulted or dishonored, a disciple must break the cycle of retaliation and not demand what is legally his.
- Love your enemies. Hebrew scripture contains no command requiring Jews to hate their enemies, but hating enemies is assumed to be just, especially when these foreigners are state or religious enemies. Jesus extends the “love the neighbor” commandment to even the enemy and the persecutor. Jesus teaches that God is Father to all humans, therefore all humans are family and deserve familial love.
- Be as perfect as the Father. Hebrew scriptures calls Jews “to be holy, just as your God is holy” (first reading). First-century Jews understood holiness as separation–from sin, sinners, and gentiles. Jesus calls his disciples not simply to be holy, but to be perfect “as your heavenly Father is perfect.” Disciples imitate their Father’s perfect love through actions and attitudes: replace anger with love and forgiveness; replace selfish desire with love; replace honor/shame with forgiveness and love; replace deceit with plain-spoken truth, replace retaliation with generosity, replace hate with love.
Today’s readings ask RCIA participants and the believing community to recognize that simple observance of a law does not produce love. Rules don’t transform people, but encountering love does. Disciples must cultivate attitudes and actions that transform them and all who encounter them. Jesus calls us to go beyond conformity to the Law and to imitate the Father’s perfect love. Every day we have the opportunity to transform anger, selfishness, deceit, retaliation, and hate into perfect love. This is how we change the world and ourselves. Doesn’t the world need transforming? Don’t we?
||Ps 112:4-5, 6-7, 8-9
||1 Cor 2:1-5
Tasting and seeing discipleship
During Ordinary time the Lectionary invites RCIA participants and the believing community to hear and to reflect on stories and teachings from Jesus’ everyday ministry. The gospel continues Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount discourse. This week’s readings focus on the results of discipleship.
In the first reading the prophet Isaiah warns that fasting alone does not change a person or create a just world. In Hebrew scripture, the prophets call the Jewish people to be “a light to the nations.” The Jewish people’s metanoia (change of mind/heart) and resulting social actions become a light that will draw the gentiles to God. Jesus makes a similar point about disciples in today’s gospel.
The second reading continues Paul’s first letter to the Corinthians. Last week, Paul targeted the Corinthian’s exclusivity: they think too highly of themselves. This week, Paul tells the Corinthians to search for something wiser than human wisdom. God’s mysterious wisdom is unavailable to worldly-wisdom seekers. God’s mystery is known only to God; it is God’s plan of salvation and involves Jesus and the cross. Paul doesn’t appeal to philosophy, but rather the truth of God’s Spirit and God’s power.
Matthew’s gospel continues Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount discourse. Today Jesus gives two parables about discipleship. When living the beatitudes (Jesus’ new law), disciples become salt and light.
- Salt: The ancient world used salt to season and to preserve food. Just as salt changes the taste of food, a disciple’s life changes the world. That is, a disciple who is poor in spirit, mourns evil, practices humility, hungers after justice, shows mercy, single-mindedly seeks God, makes peace, and endures persecution becomes a living example of God’s kingdom.
- Light: In Hebrew scripture, the prophets call the Jewish people to be “a light to the nations” (Is 60:1-3, Bar 4:2); in today’s first reading (Is 58:7-10), the Lord tells the returning exiles to care for others so “your light will break like the dawn” and “the light shall rise from you.” Jesus’ parable is in this prophetic tradition: now his disciples are a light to the nations. As a lamp reveals everything it shines on, so a disciple’s life becomes a beacon or example to everyone.
By adding the parables of salt and light at the end of the beatitudes, Matthew provides a “call to action” for disciples. Discipleship is not simply a relationship between Jesus and a disciple, but a relationship that extends from the disciple to the world. Through the disciple’s own actions and attitudes, the world experiences Jesus’ and the Father’s love.
Today’s readings ask RCIA participants and the believing community to consider how our lives reflect discipleship. Do our actions and attitudes align with the beatitudes? Do our daily interactions leave others seasoned or soured? Do our words and examples enlighten or darken others’ lives?
|Zep 2:3; 3:12-13
||Ps 146:6-7, 8-9, 9-10
||1 Cor 1:26-31
Blessed are you?
During Ordinary time the Lectionary invites RCIA participants and the believing community to hear and to reflect on stories and teachings from Jesus’ everyday ministry. Beginning this week and for the next four weeks, the gospel follows Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount discourse. This week’s readings focus on the beatitudes.
In the first reading, the prophet Zephaniah calls the Judeans to conversion to avoid the coming judgement–“the day of the Lord.” He addresses the people as anawim (AHN-ah-vim)–a Hebrew word meaning “the poor”–who depend completely on God for their lives. The Lectionary editors pair Zephaniah’s message to the anawim with Jesus’ message to the poor in spirit to contrast the coming “day of the Lord” with the coming “kingdom of God.”
The second reading continues Paul’s first letter to the Corinthians. Last week, Paul admonished the Corinthians for their disunity and quarrels. This week, Paul addresses the root cause of their exclusivity: they think too highly of themselves. Paul reminds the Corinthians that, by human standards, other people would judge them as not too smart, powerful, or classy. God chooses (calls) slow, powerless, nobodies that everyone despises to shame the world’s wise, powerful, top-class people. Paul suggests they confine their boasting to “boasting in the Lord”–recognizing that all humans live only because of God’s grace and goodness.
Matthew’s gospel begins Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount discourse. Today Jesus teaches his disciples and the crowds his new law: the beatitudes.
- What is a beatitude? Beatitudes are a common literary form in Egyptian, Hebrew, Greek, and other ancient writings. The Greek word μακάριος (mah-KAH-ree-ohs) means “blessed,” “happy,” or “fortunate,” and addresses someone who is to be praised or congratulated for being in a privileged position. In Jewish tradition, a beatitude commended someone who choose a particular path in life, or promised future consolation to someone currently experiencing affliction.
- What do the beatitudes mean? Jesus addresses his beatitudes to his disciples. He calls disciples to serve and to model God’s kingdom in this world. Worldly kingdoms (social, business, political) are in conflict with one another and with God’s kingdom. Jesus tells his disciples to give up attachments to worldly kingdoms and to align themselves with God’s kingdom. They must take on actions and attitudes–being poor in spirit, mourning evil, practicing humility, hungering after justice, showing mercy, single-mindedly seeking God, making peace, enduring persecution–that Jesus himself lives.
Today’s readings ask RCIA participants and the believing community to consider how our lives reflect God’s kingdom. Like the Judeans, we need Zephaniah’s message of continuing conversion. Like the Corinthians, we need Paul’s reminder that God is in charge, not us. As disciples, we need to walk Jesus’ path to bring the kingdom. Can we let go of our addictions to earthly wisdom, power, and status? Can we put down some of the worldly things we think we need–pride, revenge, fear–to pick up some of Jesus’ own attitudes and actions?